Codex has defined HACCP as a system which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant for food safety. More broadly it is a scientific and rational approach to food safety which analyzes potential hazards, determines the critical control points in a food process and develops monitoring procedures to determine if the hazards identified are being effectively controlled. It enhances food safety besides better use of resources and timely response to problems. HACCP has signaled a shift in emphasis from resource intensive end-product inspection and testing to preventive control of hazards at all stages of food production. This is the reason why HACCP system is now widely embraced by the food industries and by the government regulatory agencies around the world as a most cost-effective means of minimizing the occurrence of identifiable food borne biological, chemical and physical hazards and maximizing product safety. It is a system which targets critical areas of processing and in doing so reduces the risk of manufacturing and selling unsafe products
The primary objective of a HACCP programme is to produce reliably a safe food. This means a product which is free of microbiological, chemical or physical hazards. Industry is fairly familiar with various microbiological, chemical and physical hazards and trying to avoid various common hazards. Despite familiarity and knowledge of food poisoning from microbiological and chemical causes, or injury from glass, wire and other dangerous physical objects, their control is difficult and occasionally they result in serious consumer safety exposures and expensive product recalls and retrievals.It is therefore necessary to have technical orientation on common microbiological, chemical and physical hazards that may cause serious problems in foods.
HACCP can be applied throughout the food chain ( See Fig 02) from the primary production to final consumption and its implementation should be guided by scientific evidence of risks to human health to enhance food safety and provide other significant benefits. In addition, the application of HACCP systems can aid inspection by regulatory authorities and promote international trade by increasing confidence in food safety.
95 The Codex Alimentarius Commission brought out an International Standards on Food Safety Management System (HACCP) in 1997.The food industries keenly awaiting for such an international standards implemented it in their operations and got certification though implementation in their operations. Since this was not a requirement standard, a number of countries and regions developed their own standards based on HACCP for the supply of safe food. Thus one model developed by Codex became 20 models in its application with differing scope and uneven levels of food safety.
The international Organization for standardization stepped in and brought out ISO 22000:2005 Food safety management systems - Requirements for any organization in the food chain. This standard has been developed by the experts from the food industry, along with representatives of specialized international organizations and in close cooperation with the Codex Alimentarius Commission for providing a framework of internationally harmonized requirements.
The aim of this International Standard is to harmonize on a global level the requirements for food safety management for businesses within the food chain. It is particularly intended for application by organizations that seek a more focused, coherent and integrated food safety management system than is normally required by law. It requires an organization to meet any applicable food safety related statutory and regulatory requirement through its food safety management system.